java入门学习:多线程创建-Thread,Runnable,callable和threadpool

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java创建多线程的方式有许多种,这里简要做个梳理

1. 继承Thread类
继承java.lang.Thread类,创建本地多线程的类,重载run()方法,调用Thread的方法启动线程。示例代码如下:

MyThread.java

public class MyThread extends Thread {    public void run(){        private int copy = 0;        System.out.println("Thread id:" + Thread.currentThread().getName()+" == print time:" + System.currentTimeMillis());        System.out.println("Thread serialnum:" + ++copy);        try {            sleep(1000);        } catch (InterruptedException e) {            e.printStackTrace();        }        System.out.println("Thread id:" + Thread.currentThread().getName()+" == print time:" + System.currentTimeMillis());    }    public static void main(String[] args){        MyThread mt1 = new MyThread();        MyThread mt2 = new MyThread();        MyThread mt3 = new MyThread();        System.out.println("Start all Threads:");        mt1.start();        mt2.start();        mt3.start();    }}

输出结果:

Start all Threads:Thread id:Thread-0 == print time:1495975884383Thread serialnum:1Thread id:Thread-1 == print time:1495975884383Thread serialnum:1Thread id:Thread-2 == print time:1495975884383Thread serialnum:1Thread id:Thread-1 == print time:1495975885385Thread id:Thread-0 == print time:1495975885385Thread id:Thread-2 == print time:1495975885385

2. 实现Runnable接口

实现java.lang.Runnable接口的run方法,使用实现的对象实例化Thread类,调用Thread对象的start()方法。
示例代码:

public class MyRunnable implements Runnable {    private int copy = 0;    public void run(){        System.out.println("Thread id:" + Thread.currentThread().getName()+" == print time:" + System.currentTimeMillis());        System.out.println("Thread serialnum:" + ++copy);        try {            sleep(1000);        } catch (InterruptedException e) {            e.printStackTrace();        }        System.out.println("Thread id:" + Thread.currentThread().getName()+" == print time:" + System.currentTimeMillis());    }    public static void main(String[] args){        MyRunnable mr = new MyRunnable();        System.out.println("Start all Threads:");        new Thread(mr).start();        new Thread(mr).start();        new Thread(mr).start();    }}

输出结果:

Start all Threads:Thread id:Thread-0 == print time:1495975833588Thread id:Thread-1 == print time:1495975833588Thread serial:1Thread id:Thread-2 == print time:1495975833588Thread serial:2Thread serial:3Thread id:Thread-0 == print time:1495975834603Thread id:Thread-1 == print time:1495975834603Thread id:Thread-2 == print time:1495975834603
  • 对比Thread方法和Runnable方法的使输出结果不难发现:
    . 二者均可实现多线程并发效果
    . Runnable的方法可以使用一个Runnable对象创建多个线程,这多个线程共享其依赖的Runnable对象的资源,适用于多个线程处理相同资源的场景(网上举得较多的例子:卖票);Thread的方法则是完全相互独立的线程

事实上,嫌贵而言,当前Runnable使用的要比Thread方法普遍的多,除了上面说的资源共享的原因之外,Java的单继承特性也增大了Thread方法的局限性。

3. 实现Callable接口
相对于上述继承Thread类的方法和实现Runnable接口的方法,实现Callable接口的方法不但可以可以实现多线程并发,还能够处理线程的返回值或者获取执行异常。使用Callable实现多线程编程需要实现Callable的call方法(在call方法中指定返回值,抛出异常),构造与之关联的FutureTask对象,启动线程后,线程执行的结果会存储在FutureTask对象中,可以使用FutureTask的get方法获取。示例代码:

import java.util.concurrent.Callable;import java.util.concurrent.FutureTask;import static java.lang.Thread.sleep;public class MyCallable implements Callable<Integer> {    private int flag = 0;    public Integer call() throws Exception {        System.out.println("Thread id:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + "  == print time:"+System.currentTimeMillis());        sleep(10000);        System.out.println("Thread id:" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + "  == print time:"+System.currentTimeMillis());        ++flag;        return flag;    }    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception{        MyCallable myCallable = new MyCallable();        FutureTask<Integer> future = new FutureTask<Integer>(myCallable);        FutureTask<Integer> future2 = new FutureTask<Integer>(myCallable);        new Thread(future).start();        new Thread(future2).start();        int Result,Result2;//        while (!future.isDone());        Result = future.get();////        while(!future2.isDone());        Result2 = future2.get();        System.out.println("GET THREAD NAME:"+ Result );        System.out.println("GET THREAD NAME 2:"+Result2);    }}

执行结果:

Thread id:Thread-0  == print time:1495997744617Thread id:Thread-1  == print time:1495997744617Thread id:Thread-0  == print time:1495997754625Thread id:Thread-1  == print time:1495997754625GET THREAD NAME:1GET THREAD NAME 2:2

上述代码执行逻辑与前面Runnale的示例代码类似,通过构造Thread对象来启动多线程。区别在于此处构造了futureTask方法用来用来存储线程返回值。需要注意的是,线程的Callable泛型接口里的类型和call()方法的返回值类型和FutureTask的泛型接口类型要一致。

4. 使用线程池和Executor框架
前面的三种方案,我们创建了Runnable或者Callable或者Thread的任务,扔到Thread中去启动,我们需要手动去管理各种多线程的参数,比如线程数量,线程复用,线程安全的控制等。Java5以后的版本提供了Executor技术,能够提供搭建好的线程池,为多线程提供了完整的解决方案,能够有效的管理线程数量,线程复用策略,保证线程安全,避免this逃逸问题等。
Executor提供的线程池方案包括newCachedThreadPool,newFixedThreadPool,newScheduledThreadPool和SingleThreadExecutor(Fork/Join框架还提供了一个newWorkStealingPool),这些线程池分别提供了不同的线程管理方案,执行返回一个ExecutorService对象,这个对象可以调用execute()方法或者submit()方法,将前面定义的Runnable任务或者Callable任务或者Thread任务提交到各个线程去执行

我们以比较常用的newCachedThreadPool()为例,下面示例代码使用ExecutorService执行一个Callable对象任务,获取每个线程的返回值。

import java.util.ArrayList;import java.util.List;import java.util.concurrent.*;import static java.lang.Thread.sleep;public class MyCallable2 implements Callable<String> {    public String call() throws Exception{        sleep(1000);        System.out.println("terminate the thread : "+Thread.currentThread().getName());        return Thread.currentThread().getName();    }    public static void main(String[] args){        ExecutorService es = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();        List<Future<String>> futureList = new ArrayList<Future<String>>();        for(int i=0;i<5;i++){            Future future = es.submit(new MyCallable2());            futureList.add(future);        }        for (Future f: futureList             ) {            while(!f.isDone());            try {                System.out.println("EXECUTE RESULT:"+f.get());            } catch (InterruptedException e) {                e.printStackTrace();            } catch (ExecutionException e) {                e.printStackTrace();            }            finally {                es.shutdown();            }        }    }}

执行结果如下:

terminate the thread : pool-1-thread-5terminate the thread : pool-1-thread-4terminate the thread : pool-1-thread-3terminate the thread : pool-1-thread-2terminate the thread : pool-1-thread-1EXECUTE RESULT:pool-1-thread-1EXECUTE RESULT:pool-1-thread-2EXECUTE RESULT:pool-1-thread-3EXECUTE RESULT:pool-1-thread-4EXECUTE RESULT:pool-1-thread-5

使用Executors创建Runnable线程与创建Callable线程的方法类似,且不用管理返回值,相对更加简单,此处不再赘述。

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